ZURBARÁN: una nueva mirada 1

Elvira Q.

Sin título

El Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza presenta la exposición Zurbarán: una nueva mirada, revisión actualizada de la obra de este gran maestro del Siglo de Oro español desde la perspectiva de los descubrimientos y estudios realizados en las últimas décadas, que han venido a enriquecer el conocimiento del artista y su trabajo.

Francisco de Zurbarán y su obra han sido objeto de numerosas muestras, desde la primera organizada en Madrid en 1905 hasta las múltiples manifestaciones artísticas que conmemoraron el IV centenario de su nacimiento en 1998, y que culminaron con una gran exposición monográfica en Sevilla. Diez años antes, en 1988, la extensa antológica celebrada en el Museo del Prado supuso una puesta al día de los estudios sobre el pintor, pero evidenció también lagunas que afectaban al taller, a la datación de algunas obras o a momentos de su vida. Esos más de 25 años transcurridos son buena razón para dedicarle una nueva exposición monográfica que ahonde en su figura, su obra y su tiempo y que, lejos de pretender ser una revisión exhaustiva, presente algunas de las más importantes novedades y descubrimientos, obras inéditas o recientemente recuperadas y piezas restauradas para la ocasión.

Sin título1Tras su presentación en Madrid, para la que cuenta con el mecenazgo de Japan Tobacco International, la exposición viajará a Alemania, al Museum Kunstpalast de Düsseldorf. La selección de obras realizada por las dos comisarias del proyecto, Odile Delenda y Mar Borobia, se ha centrado en primer lugar en la obra autógrafa de Zurbarán, con piezas destacadas de distintas épocas y de algunos de los grandes conjuntos que realizó a lo largo de toda su carrera. Los préstamos proceden de colecciones y museos españoles, europeos y americanos, e incluyen algunas obras nunca antes expuestas en España y otras que han pasado a formar parte del catálogo del pintor después de 1988. También se presenta por primera vez una sala dedicada a la producción de los ayudantes del taller y otra a la naturaleza muerta, en la que se reunirán algunos de los escasos bodegones del maestro junto a los de su hijo Juan, colaborador y discípulo aventajado, cuyas magníficas pinturas de flores y frutas han sido recientemente redescubiertas.

FRANCISCO DE ZURBARÁN (Fuente de Cantos, 1598 – Madrid, 1664)

Francisco de Zurbarán es uno de los artistas más avanzados de su época. El atractivo de su obra desborda ampliamente el ámbito hispano y lo convierte en figura incontestable entre los nombres más destacados de la pintura europea. Pintor de lo concreto, sus formas geometrizadas, de duras aristas, y sus grandes superficies lisas, junto con el universo solemne y silencioso que transmite su obra, lo conecta con algunas sensibilidades de movimientos artísticos del siglo XX, del cubismo a la pintura metafísica, poniendo de manifiesto su gran actualidad.

Sin título2Zurbarán es también uno de los pintores españoles del siglo XVII que mejor ha expresado el sentimiento religioso, realizando en su obra una sutil síntesis entre misticismo y realismo. Pasó la mayor parte de su vida en Sevilla, dedicado a la ejecución de cuadros de devoción, retablos o ciclos monásticos para las numerosas comunidades monacales florecientes en aquella época, como dominicos, franciscanos o mercedarios. Los religiosos sevillanos le encargaban conjuntos que marcaron la cadencia de su carrera artística y que, desde época temprana, requirieron la participación de un taller. Su estilo original, muy característico y de lenta evolución, está vinculado a una concepción tenebrista de la luz, sumándose a unas composiciones sencillas y estáticas, y a una minuciosa factura de los valores táctiles de los objetos representados.

Sin título3Las figuras escultóricas, de porte monumental y llenas de dignidad, se construyen con solidez en el espacio bajo una luz rotunda y plenamente humanas, dando la sensación de estar transfiguradas por su fe. Colorista excepcional, su profundo interés por expresar la calidad de las cosas, hace que las telas y los enseres representados, sean de la naturaleza que sean -flores, frutas, vasijas- y aún colocados en lugares secundarios, adquieran el rango de protagonistas junto a los rostros y las manos de los personajes. Alguno de los mejores ejemplos los encontramos en su famosa serie de santas que representa de forma completamente novedosa, solas, vestidas con ricos y suntuosos trajes y con rostros de gran belleza y mirada expresiva. De sus manos han surgido también algunos de los bodegones más influyentes de la pintura española. Construidos con pocos y toscos objetos, estas obras tienen la virtud de transmitir al espectador todo un mundo de sensaciones plenas de trascendencia.

Sesenta y tres obras, en su mayoría de gran formato, se presentan distribuidas en siete salas, siguiendo un orden cronológico y atendiendo también a la naturaleza del encargo por el que fueron ejecutadas.

Sin título4Con este planteamiento, el visitante encontrará espacios dedicados a las grandes comisiones de las comunidades religiosas junto a otros donde se contemplarán obras individuales destinadas a la devoción privada, incluyendo en mitad del recorrido las dos salas dedicadas a los bodegones y a los artistas que colaboraron en su taller.

LOS INICIOS. PRIMEROS CONJUNTOS 1626-1630

Hijo de un comerciante acomodado, Francisco de Zurbarán nació en Fuente de Cantos (Badajoz) en 1598 y fue el menor de cinco hermanos varones. Se formó en la cercana Sevilla, en el taller de Pedro Díaz de Villanueva, donde está documentado en enero de 1614. Concluido su aprendizaje, contrae matrimonio con María Páez en 1617, en Llerena, con 19 años de edad. Con ella tuvo tres hijos, entre ellos Juan, futuro pintor y colaborador. Zurbarán se casó en dos ocasiones más, con Beatriz de Morales en 1625 y con Leonor de Tordera en 1644.

Sin título5Sus primeros encargos llegarían del entorno más inmediato, hasta que en 1626 firma un contrato para realizar 21 pinturas para los dominicos de San Pablo el Real de Sevilla. Esta tarea, con escenas de su fundador y que se comprometió a realizar en ocho meses, le abrió las puertas de la ciudad. Logró así nuevos encargos, como el del convento de la Merced Calzada, un conjunto dedicado a san Pedro Nolasco al que estaba destinado la que se considera una de sus obras maestras de juventud, el San Serapio (1628) del Wadsworth Atheneum de Hartford, una de las piezas destacadas de la exposición y solo expuesta en España en una ocasión hace más de cincuenta años. En esta primera sección se incluyen además algunas obras importantes de nueva atribución, como la Aparición de la Virgen a San Pedro Nolasco (c.1628-1630) de una colección privada de París, y otras nunca antes vistas en nuestro país, como San Francisco de pie contemplando una calavera (c.1633-1635) o San Blas (c.1633-1635), procedentes de San Luis y Bucarest, respectivamente.

Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, del 9 de junio al 13 de septiembre de 2015  Paseo del Prado 8. 28014, Madrid.

*(Nota: El artículo se ha partido en dos veces, dada su longitud, porque hemos considerado que la importancia de la exposición merecía que aquellos que no la puedan visitar en Madrid vean, al menos, abundantes imágenes de los cuadros expuestos.)

 

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