Libertad de expresión

Elvira Q.

9.1.LibertadDesde que por primera vez se habló de derechos, personajes de todas las procedencias, culturas y disciplinas han subrayado la importancia de la libertad de expresión en frases relativas a este asunto, muchas de las cuales han inspirado reivindicaciones, luchas y cambios sociales en distintos momentos.

En este post te proponemos un viaje relámpago a la historia de la libertad de expresión y te inspiramos con frases que la reivindican. ¡Que nadie nos acalle!

¿Qué entendemos por ‘libertad de expresión’?

La libertad de expresión es un derecho que tenemos todas las personas a la hora de decir, afirmar o manifestar nuestras creencias, pensamientos e ideas sin que esto sea un motivo de discriminación, represión u otras formas de violencia.

Este derecho deja claro, además, que tenemos plena libertad para difundir dichas ideas sin límites de fronteras o medios de información. Pero… ¿en qué marco se mueve?

Libertad-de-expresionLa libertad de expresión está contemplada en el artículo 19 de la Declaración de los Derechos Humanos aprobada por la ONU en 1948, así como en el Pacto Internacional de Derechos Civiles y Políticos que entró en vigor en 1975.

Según estas herramientas, son básicamente dos los niveles en los que debe aplicarse la libertad de expresión: el individual (que se refiere a la libertad para que cada persona exprese libremente sus ideas y pensamientos) y el colectivo (que señala el intercambio de información para la participación de quienes integran la sociedad).

Frases de libertad de expresión que dejaron huella

La libertad de expresión siempre ha despertado interés en áreas como la filosofía, la historia, el arte, la literatura y la política. Repasemos algunas de las frases que han marcado tendencia en este sentido:

No estoy de acuerdo con lo que dices, pero defenderé con mi vida tu derecho a expresarlo 

Voltaire, filósofo francés del siglo XVIII

Es una de las frases más recordadas cuando hablamos de libertad de expresión. La pronunció Voltaire en los años en que los derechos de hombres y mujeres empezaban a consolidarse como una herramienta legal y jurídica. Habla, además, de la tolerancia por las posturas ajenas y diferentes.

El lenguaje, la palabra, es una forma más de poder, una de las muchas que nos ha estado prohibida

Victòria Sau,  escritora y psicóloga española, más conocida por su faceta como activista política feminista.

Siendo una de las figuras más relevantes del feminismo de España, creó el concepto de “feminismo científico” y promovió en 2009 una petición a través del Consejo de las Mujeres del Ayuntamiento de Barcelona del reconocimiento a nivel mundial de la existencia del patriarcado.

En un Estado verdaderamente libre, el pensamiento y la palabra deben ser libres

Suetonio, historiador romano

Suetonio, uno de los grandes historiadores de la Antigüedad, vincula la libertad de expresión con el ámbito social. Para él, no puede existir una cosa sin la otra.

Sin libertad de pensamiento, la libertad de expresión vale poco

José Luis Sampedro, escritor, humanista y economista español

Para este reconocido filósofo español, fallecido en 2013, la libertad de expresión tiene su origen en la libertad de pensamiento. Por ello, cree fundamental que antes que poder expresar lo que cada persona quiera, deben crearse las condiciones para poder pensar de forma libre y autónoma.

Si no creemos en la libertad de expresión de quienes no piensan como nosotros, no creemos en ella

Noam Chomsky, lingüista

A través de esta frase, uno de los grandes teóricos del siglo XX, reconocido por sus aportes a la teoría de la comunicación y la información de masas, pone el énfasis en la posibilidad de disentir y abrir espacios para quienes no tienen las mismas opiniones que nosotros. Es el principio básico del concepto.

La libertad de expresión es decir aquello que la gente no quiere oír

George Orwell, escritor británico

Orwell, famoso por sus críticas al poder, define la libertad de expresión desde un punto de vista más reivindicativo, es decir, subrayando la necesidad de decir aquello que se considera política y socialmente incorrecto aun cuando su nivel de aceptación sea escaso. Para él, lo importante es la posibilidad de disentir de lo que considera las versiones oficiales de los hechos.

 

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