La flora intestinal

Carmen de Lucas Vallejo.

Alrededor de un kilo, kilo y medio, del peso corporal en un individuo adulto se debe a los microorganismos que alberga en el tracto gastrointestinal, los cuales constituyen un complejo ecosistema de más de 400 especies distintas, que conviven en armonía, sintetizando vitaminas, sustancias beneficiosas, contribuyendo a la absorción de nutrientes, favoreciendo el metabolismo colónico de la fibra, mejorando la digestibilidad y neutralizando sustancias potencialmente patógenas.

Las principales funciones de la flora intestinal son limitar el crecimiento de microorganismos patógenos en el intestino e interactuar con substratos no absorbidos de la dieta. El tracto gastrointestinal contiene una flora normal abundante y diversa. Aunque la acidez del estómago impide cualquier colonización significativa en un individuo sano, no todos los gérmenes que entran al organismo por vía oral se destruyen al pasar por el estómago, muchas especies pueden sobrevivir y establecerse en el tracto intestinal inferior.

intestinoEl intestino grueso es la parte más importante, ya que en él se llevan a cabo todos los procesos de reabsorción. Los residuos alimenticios permanecen en él de 16 a 68 horas y es la región que comprende la mayor carga microbiana del cuerpo. La flora intestinal coloniza la parte baja del intestino delgado y el intestino grueso, donde hay ausencia de oxígeno, porque es incapaz de reproducirse en presencia de éste. Normalmente, la vida microfloral es relativamente escasa en el intestino delgado, en particular hay Estreptococos, Lactobacilos y levaduras, pero se vuelve crecientemente abundante en el íleon inferior y el colon, encontrándose ya Enterobacteriaceae y Bacteroides.

El colon humano participa en varias enfermedades y es el lugar preferido para la colonización de muchos patógenos, además, hay otras enfermedades intestinales crónicas, como las enfermedades inflamatorias del intestino, el cáncer de colon y la colitis pseudomembranosa, en las que en su etiología interviene la flora bacteriana. El grupo de bacterias más numeroso es el de los anaeróbicos, que representan un 90%, incluyendo Bacteroides y Bífidobacterias, en primer orden, seguidos de Eubacterias y Peptoestreptococos. En un rango del 1% – 5% se encuentran los anaeróbicos facultativos, como Lactobacilos, Enterococos y Coliformes.

La principal función de la microflora intestinal es digestiva, es decir, la degradación de ciertos componentes presentes en los alimentos. Una flora armonizada y balanceada contribuye a una mejor absorción de los nutrientes, es decir, minerales, oligoelementos, vitaminas y aminoácidos Durante muchos años, se consideró que los microorganismos de la flora intestinal degradaban los productos de la digestión sin ningún beneficio para el ser humano, sin embargo, no es así, la flora bacteriana genera compuestos útiles para la nutrición del individuo, produce ciertas vitaminas (vitaminas del grupo B y vitamina K), algunos aminoácidos esenciales, como lisina, y ácidos grasos de cadena corta que resultan esenciales para el crecimiento de los enterocitos.

Además, la flora intestinal suministra la primera línea de defensa contra los agentes patógenos, impidiendo su implantación y desarrollo en el tracto gastrointestinal; esta función es conocida con el nombre de efecto barrera. El epitelio intestinal constituiría la segunda línea de defensa y una verdadera barrera por la acción combinada de la mucosa y de las células epiteliales y la tercera línea de defensa sería el sistema inmunitario. Un epitelio intestinal intacto con una flora óptima, caracterizada por un equilibrio sensible entre bacterias beneficiosas y bacterias potencialmente dañinas, representa, pues, una barrera frente a la invasión de microorganismos patógenos, antígenos y compuestos nocivos desde el intestino.

Hoy consideramos a la flora intestinal como un factor clave y el balance de su composición influye en el bienestar y la salud. Su desequilibrio puede prevenirse con una buena alimentación y con la administración de cultivos microbianos vivos. Desde hace muchos años se viene intentando la administración de preparados bacterianos, que restablezcan este equilibrio, en la actualidad hay un considerable interés por el estudio de la flora benéfica, estableciéndose diferentes estrategias para modificar la flora intestinal humana que van desde la inclusión en los alimentos de bacterias consideradas probióticas y de carbohidratos no digeribles considerados prebióticos. Dichas estrategias pudieran ofrecer los siguientes beneficios nutricionales: una mejora en la supervivencia de bacterias vivas en productos alimenticios, un aumento en el número de bacterias ingeridas que alcanzan el colon, la estimulación en el colon de un crecimiento e implantación de bacterias tanto exógenas como endógenas y una activación del metabolismo de éstas, ya que es importante enfatizar que solo las bacterias metabólicamente activas pueden promover un estado de salud.

43 Comments en La flora intestinal

  1. I love dating redheads so much that I joined a site just for redheads

  2. An interesting discussion is worth comment. I think that you should write more on this topic, it might not be a taboo subject but generally people are not enough to speak on such topics. To the next. Cheers

  3. Find your visitors and individuals better whilst this type of show business, it is really assured to turn you into think twice.

  4. Desperate maladies require desperate remedies.

  5. Is using a copyright material as a reference to write articles illegal?

  6. Would you be interested in exchanging links?

  7. Thank you for the auspicious writeup. It in fact was a amusement account it. Look advanced to more added agreeable from you! However, how could we communicate?

  8. I¡¦ve recently started a blog, the information you provide on this site has helped me tremendously. Thank you for all of your time & work.

  9. what is alkaline water

  10. Have witnessed as well as caught wind of these sort of an woodworm initially. I like recognizing in relation to many forms of insects and additionally critters. The survival pattern on the mosquito exposed in in this case can end up being quite sensational. Will appear forwards to an increase in these kinds of pleasant support posts.

  11. A person necessarily help to make critically posts I might state. This is the very first time I frequented your website page and so far? I surprised with the analysis you made to create this particular submit incredible. Fantastic task!

  12. Great blog! I am loving it!! Will come back again. I am bookmarking your feeds also

  13. It is truly a great and useful piece of information. I¡¦m glad that you simply shared this helpful info with us. Please stay us up to date like this. Thank you for sharing.

  14. Hi, Neat post. There is an issue along with your site in web explorer, could test this¡K IE nonetheless is the marketplace leader and a huge section of other people will miss your wonderful writing because of this problem.

  15. I do believe all of the ideas you have offered for your post. They’re really convincing and will definitely work. Nonetheless, the posts are too short for starters. Could you please lengthen them a little from subsequent time? Thanks for the post.

  16. What else invent you got and my eyes flitted to the wardrobe.I quiz that my beotches withhold their cooch shipshape for me only and no other masculine is permitted into them.

  17. Personally I’d say that flying is all about a state of intelligence. While a proper diet and lifestyle can help in this I believe it’s the belief. It all boils down to helping them think that they are still an asset.

  18. Heya i am for the first time here. I found this board and I find It really useful & it helped me out much. I hope to give something back and aid others like you aided me.

  19. So I accidentally erased the joomla folder. But the database the still there untouched.. Could it be posible that I re-install joomla and connect it with all the old data source and have all my articles and files back again as it was?.

  20. Thank you for any other magnificent post. Where else may just anybody get that type of information in such an ideal approach of writing? I have a presentation subsequent week, and I am at the look for such info.

  21. Thank you for another informative site. Where else could I get that kind of information written in such a perfect way? I’ve a project that I’m just now working on, and I’ve been on the look out for such info.

  22. I realize its itself is free of charge for personal file sharing…. but individuals are also upload a articles which is definitely copyrighted…. downloading this is unlawful in uk or not really? becoz we are not posting like bittorrent only downloading.. Its anywhere illegal yet people 3rd there’s r still downloading in some countries like india, pak becoz the INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER do not state anything…. that is im asking is this same task is happening in uk also?.

  23. And how perform you produce a lot of traffic?.. I would like to make a blog concerning my “adventure” with a little point people like to call the entertainment sector. I want to consist of photos, encounters tips, and stories is this enough or?? And really should i make my on blog or use something similar to blogger or flat press?.

  24. Very good website you have here but I was wanting to know if you knew of any forums that cover the same topics talked about here? I’d really like to be a part of group where I can get opinions from other experienced people that share the same interest. If you have any suggestions, please let me know. Thank you!

  25. We absolutely love your blog and find nearly all of your post’s to be what precisely I’m looking for. Does one offer guest writers to write content to suit your needs? I wouldn’t mind creating a post or elaborating on a few of the subjects you write related to here. Again, awesome weblog!

  26. I’m doing a project regarding spectators and am trying to find peoples views and emotions from the olympics (whether watching it in beijing or on the tv)… I searched technorati to get “olympics” and there are sooo many results that are much more recent and come up first, but usually are what I am just looking meant for, I aren’t work out ways to filter out ones from the games….. Anyone understand how I can perform a search for blogs tagged olympics in state the month of Aug..

  27. I know there are lots of chrome addons that help control saving pictures, but what I is specifically looking intended for is, one that can allow myself to simply insert the picture link and it will download the picture from that link.. Reason being, the photos I was saving is usually has their particular own specific link and never on the same web page itself..

  28. I wish to start a blog/online diary, although not sure where to begin..

  29. I may have found something that is copyright infringement on associated content… What exactly occurs if it’s reported?. Does connected content toe nail down on the writer? Or is the articles simply taken out?. Is the article writer charged with criminal offenses?. Thanks..

  30. I’m just curious, since I want to research creative composing in university. Thanks!.

  31. What do I need from a client in order to install Joomla and update their preexisting site?

  32. I enjoyed your post today i have shared it with friends. I hope you continues in order to us with good content sometime soon.

  33. I want to know where precisely to insert the code on my template in my blog so that the ‘Digg It’ Button shows up for each every post of mine… Also If I desire to show how many diggs I got on one of my blog post where do I show it? Where exactly do I put the code? And exactly where do I get the code from? Nice helping me personally with this..

  34. Hey There. I found your blog using msn. This is a really well written article. I’ll make sure to bookmark it and come back to read more of your useful info. Thanks for the post. I’ll definitely comeback.

  35. A formidable share, I simply given this onto a colleague who was doing somewhat analysis on this. And he in actual fact purchased me breakfast as a result of I found it for him.. smile. So let me reword that: Thnx for the deal with! However yeah Thnkx for spending the time to discuss this, I feel strongly about it and love reading extra on this topic. If attainable, as you turn out to be experience, would you mind updating your weblog with more details? It is extremely helpful for me. Massive thumb up for this weblog put up!

  36. Its not my first time to visit this site, i am browsing this site dailly and take pleasant facts from here everyday.|

  37. 134717 461562you are in point of fact a excellent webmaster. The site loading velocity is wonderful. It seems that you are performing any distinctive trick. In addition, The contents are masterpiece. you

  38. Nice post. I learn something more challenging on different blogs everyday. It will always be stimulating to read content from other writers and practice a little something from their store. I’d prefer to use some with the content on my blog whether you don’t mind. Natually I’ll give you a link on your web blog. Thanks for sharing.

  39. I simply want to say I am newbie to weblog and seriously enjoyed your page. Likely I’m going to bookmark your website . You surely have really good writings. With thanks for revealing your webpage.

  40. I simply want to tell you that I am new to blogs and honestly liked this web page. Most likely I’m want to bookmark your blog post . You certainly come with terrific articles and reviews. Regards for revealing your website.

  41. Thank you for every other magnificent post. The place else may anyone get that type of information in such an ideal method of writing? I’ve a presentation subsequent week, and I’m on the look for such information.

  42. This in truth is a fantastic weblog message, I will file the accept in my mind. Condition you can append more video and pictures can be real much better. Since they evade significantly net understanding. recognition Attenborough.

1 Trackbacks & Pingbacks

  1. My Homepage

Deja un comentario.

Tu dirección de correo no será publicada.