Campo cerrado. Arte y poder en la posguerra española. 1939-1953

Carmen de Lucas Vallejo.

El Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, con el mecenazgo de la Fundación Banco Santander, nos presenta la exposición: Campo cerrado. Arte y poder en la posguerra española. 1939-1953.

cerradoEn abril de 1939, con la entrada en Madrid del ejército sublevado al mando del general  Franco, comienza en España una  larga  dictadura. En septiembre de 1939 se inicia en Europa la Segunda Guerra Mundial, que concluye  en 1945 con la derrota de los países del Eje, políticamente afines a Franco. Sobre un país asolado y aislado internacionalmente, el régimen franquista impone una campaña de (re)construcción nacional, literal y metafórica, que afecta decisivamente a la cultura. Es un tiempo de contrastes en el que conviven, no sin violencia, el deseo solemnizador y la pobreza, la retórica de un pasado glorioso y la dureza del presente, las continuidades y las rupturas, el afán de supervivencia en el interior y el exilio en el exterior. Esta situación altera, endurece y enturbia las relaciones entre el poder y el arte y describe todos los matices posibles entre la eficacia (tanto coactiva como represiva) del poder oficial y la capacidad de resiliencia de la cultura y de sus autores.

Invocando el espíritu crítico de Campo cerrado (Ciudad de México, 1943), la novela de Max Aub centrada en los años previos a la Guerra Civil, así como las connotaciones de su título, esta exposición revisa la posguerra española a partir de un trabajo de investigación que combina panorámicas generales con casos de estudio, obras conocidas con otras rescatadas del olvido, e incluye piezas de naturalezas muy diversas, en ocasiones inéditas para la historia del arte. El resultado cuestiona tópicos como la escasez e irrelevancia de la actividad cultural o artística durante la década de 1940 y esboza una imagen de la época que se resiste a las esquematizaciones.

La muestra propone un mapa con varios caminos posibles, que tienen en cuenta las cronologías pero no se someten a la linealidad temporal. Al contrario, el relato se articula en bloques temáticos relacionados con aspectos clave de la época, que funcionan como capítulos autónomos, aunque entre ellos existan conexiones y encadenamientos.

UNA NUEVA ERA

cerrado2En 1939, cuando la marcialidad de los desfiles militares contrasta con las salidas de exilados y mientras se presagia la violencia de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, la (re)construcción del país se convierte en una de las empresas más importantes de la dictadura. La creación de una imagen simbólica para el nuevo régimen invade todos los aspectos de la vida del país. Aparece sistemáticamente en óleos y en revistas, pero también en libros de texto y otros materiales destinados a la infancia y la juventud: todo es susceptible de ser soporte de una pedagogía visual que se convierte en arma crucial de propaganda.

Esta nueva imagen de lo nacional y reedificación de lo destruido dan lugar también a campañas constructivas convenientemente publicitadas. Ejemplos de estas estrategias son el reconocimiento de la ruina como elemento sublimador de la guerra y la instauración de escenarios de carga simbólica que dan un nuevo significado a lugares como Toledo o la Ciudad Universitaria.

RETORNOS  Y ACADEMIAS

La política oficial de ensalzar la llamada “Escuela española”, entendida como verdadera esencia artística nacional, se hace visible ya en la Bienal de Venecia de 1938 y tiene continuidad en las exposiciones celebradas en Berlín (1942) y Buenos Aires (1947). Esta idea otorga gran trascendencia a la vuelta de los cuadros del Museo del Prado desde Ginebra en 1939, así como al retorno de las Exposiciones Nacionales de Bellas Artes en 1941.

cerrado3Lo académico adquiere en la posguerra un significado más difuso, pues conjuga los modelos italiano y alemán, muy visibles antes de 1945, con la interrogación intelectual sobre el lugar del artista en el nuevo orden social y cultural, y se cruza también con las huellas de las figuraciones surrealistas y clasicistas propias del retorno al orden del periodo de entreguerras. El eclecticismo caracteriza asimismo la Academia Breve de Crítica de Arte dirigida desde 1942 en Madrid por Eugenio d’Ors. Sus elitistas Salones de los Once esbozan una genealogía de la modernidad española que parte de los clasicismos, casticismos y vanguardias de la Barcelona del Noucentisme para llegar a una templada visión de la modernidad presente.

CAMPO Y CIUDAD

La construcción de un ideal agrario es uno de los aspectos fundamentales de la cultura de los años cuarenta. En un país autárquico, lo rural es mitificado, estetizado y utilizado a la vez. Como tema de representación preferente, el paisaje, junto con sus pobladores y objetos, se convierte en emblema de la reciedumbre y disciplina intemporal que se presenta como esencia de un espíritu nacional que ahora se quiere rescatar del pasado. Los nuevos pueblos, por su parte, se conducen entre lo moderno y lo tradicional, y participan de una sutil forma de control social. Por contraste, la difícil supervivencia en un entorno urbano endurecido y bajo sospecha, la persistencia y proximidad de los sistemas de represión política, la definición de un lugar social específico para la mujer de la mano de la Sección Femenina de Falange Española y el humor y los espectáculos públicos como admitidas vías de escape cotidiano son algunos de los aspectos que conforman la vida y la cultura en las ciudades de los años cuarenta y que, en ocasiones, se manifiestan en el cine y la literatura con un reverso crítico.

LA IRRUPCIÓN DE LO IRRACIONAL. EL POSTISMO

cerrado4En 1945 un movimiento de carácter marginal, el postismo, plantea una tendencia a la irracionalidad, al cosmopolitismo y la recuperación de comportamientos de las vanguardias de preguerra que se hace más evidente a medida que avanza la década. El trío formado por Carlos Edmundo de Ory, Eduardo Chicharro Briones y Silvano Sernesi da comienzo al movimiento a través de dos efímeras revistas, Postismo y La Cerbatana, de sentido tan irreverente como ecléctico. Sus exposiciones, una en Madrid y otra en Zaragoza, reúnen a artistas de sensibilidades y estilos diversos. Pero la resonancia de este movimiento, más literario que plástico, alcanza toda su dimensión si consideramos no solo a quienes estuvieron más próximos a sus fundadores, sino también su influencia liberadora, directa o indirecta, en artistas situados más allá de ese núcleo.

INTERVALO TEATRAL

Territorio privilegiado para la experimentación y cobijo de artistas que no querían o no podían aspirar a un papel muy visible en el panorama artístico, el teatro ocupa un papel central en la puesta en escena del régimen, a través de los actos de masas primero –desfiles de la victoria, conmemoraciones históricas y representaciones dramáticas en la calle– y de la creación de los Teatros Nacionales después. Algunos de los escenógrafos del momento emplean un lenguaje formal que participa de la ritualidad totalitaria, la iconografía surrealista y las recuperaciones folklóricas e historicistas, y que se difunde también a través del cine. Entre las experiencias más ambiciosas del momento constan la radio urbana ensayada por Val del Omar (Circuito perifónico, 1940), las representaciones en espacios urbanos o el Don Juan Tenorio de Salvador Dalí en el Teatro Nacional (1949).

EXILIOS

cerrado5Durante esta década una parte de la cultura española, enfrentada a la dictadura de Franco, parte al exilio. Los principales polos de atracción son México y Argentina, donde los exilados españoles fundan compañías teatrales, editoriales, revistas y libros. La dolorosa nostalgia del que se va sin saber si regresará, el desgarro y la perplejidad del desarraigo y la necesidad de integrarse en lugares y sociedades hasta entonces desconocidos se suman a un posicionamiento político en ocasiones muy manifiesto.

Pablo Picasso y Joan Miró mantienen posiciones complementarias respecto al exilio: ambos están presentes y ausentes al mismo tiempo en la escena española. Picasso es aclamado en museos de arte moderno internacionales como referencia clásica de la modernidad, pero carece de visibilidad en los españoles y nunca regresa a su país. Instalado en París durante la ocupación alemana y políticamente comprometido con la II República, el antifranquismo y el comunismo, después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial centra buena parte de su interés estético en el retorno al clasicismo a orillas del mediterráneo y despierta la admiración de buena parte de los artistas españoles del exilio. Miró, por su parte, regresa  calladamente  a  España  en 1942. Mientras mantiene sus contactos y actividades internacionales, se posiciona al margen de la cultura oficial y, en pocos años, se convierte en referencia para artistas más jóvenes en busca de caminos plásticos inexplorados para encauzar difusas resistencias al régimen.

ARQUITECTURAS

A finales de los años cuarenta el objetivo de unión de las artes bajo la arquitectura gana un protagonismo internacional que se prolonga durante los cincuenta. En España este concepto se materializa en espacios como la reforma del Cine Dorado, inaugurada en Zaragoza en 1949 y diseñada por el pintor y arquitecto Santiago Lagunas (miembro del Grupo Pórtico, relacionado con el inicio de la abstracción en la posguerra); la Cámara de Comercio de Córdoba, diseñada por Rafael de la Hoz y José María García de Paredes o, sobre todo, el pabellón español de la IX Trienal de Milán de 1951. La decisión de fundir la tradición popular local con el gusto de la modernidad internacional en este pabellón, concebido por José Antonio Coderch y Rafael Santos Torroella, supone el primer éxito del régimen franquista en un foro internacional. Esta idea es desarrollada también por Miguel Fisac en interiores como los del Instituto de Óptica Daza Valdés y la librería del CSIC en Madrid, o el Instituto Laboral de Daimiel.

cerrado6El problema habitacional en el entorno urbano y la cuestión religiosa avivan también la discusión sobre una nueva arquitectura. Así, en la Barcelona de 1951 se crea el Grupo R, que a su vez simboliza el puente entre las artes plásticas y la arquitectura, y entre la modernidad de antes y después de la guerra. Por su parte, la unión de lo transcendente y lo moderno se refleja en el gran altar urbano diseñado por Josep Soteras para el XXXV Congreso Eucarístico de Barcelona en 1952 y se hace especialmente palpable en el santuario de Aránzazu, centro de espiritualidad conectado al sentimiento identitario vasco, planificado por Francisco Javier Sáenz de Oiza y Luis Laorga, en cuyo diseño colabora activamente el escultor Jorge Oteiza.

PRIMITIVO,  MÁGICO, OSCURO

Estimulado en 1948 por el descubrimiento estético del alemán Mathias Goeritz y con el apoyo de la oficialidad local, las cuevas de Altamira se convierten en 1949 y 1950 en escenario de debates internacionales sobre una modernidad ligada a lo primitivo: es la llamada Escuela de Altamira, que revive la aspiración de universalidad de una modernidad basada en el modelo de preguerra. La idea de modernidad oscura y primigenia resuena en grupos como Dau al Set en Barcelona, Pórtico en Zaragoza o Ladac en Canarias. También en 1948 coinciden en Barcelona la publicación del primer número de la revista Dau al Set, de herencia entre surrealista y dadaísta, con la celebración del primer Salón de Otoño y del primer Ciclo Experimental de Arte Joven, que crean un panorama de plataformas independientes para las nueva manifestaciones plásticas. El carácter oscuro, mágico e irracional del nuevo arte –y especialmente de Dau al Set, que a través de Juan Eduardo Cirlot enlaza también con el postismo– encuentra un eco musical en los Salones de Jazz que organiza el llamado Club 49 del Hot Club, relacionado con Rafael Santos Torroella y con la editorial y revista Cobalto.

APROPIACIÓN OFICIAL DE LO MODERNO

A comienzos de los cincuenta el régimen franquista oficializa su posición de apoyo institucional a la modernidad con la mirada puesta en la Guerra Fría. En 1951 y tras el éxito en la IX Trienal de Milán, el ministro Joaquín Ruiz-Giménez inaugura la I Bienal Hispanoamericana de Arte y crea el Museo de Arte Contemporáneo, cuya dirección se encarga al arquitecto José Luis Fernández del Amo. En 1953, el año de los tratados hispano-norteamericanos, él mismo dirige en Santander el curso y exposición de arte abstracto que sirve de punto de encuentro a algunos de los artistas que cuatro años después fundan el grupo El Paso, epítome oficial de la pintura informalista española de los cincuenta. Parecía entonces anunciarse un tiempo que dejaba atrás la cerrazón de la primera posguerra.

Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía. Edificio Sabatini, Planta 3. Santa Isabel, 52. Madrid. Hasta el 26 de septiembre de 2016.

 

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